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非谓语动词


频道:高中教学资源 来源:无锡家教吧 点击:516 日期:2019/3/19

不定式(infinitive)、分词(participle)、动名词(gerund)是非谓语动词,在句子中不能作谓语。以下表格列出了他们各自在句中的作用。(√表示可以在句中担任的语法成分,×则表示不可以。)

作用

种类

主语

宾语

宾语补足语

表语

定语

状语

不定式

动名词

×

×

 

×

×

非谓语动词在句中的特点、性质、用法、区别及使用注意事项分述如下:

第一节、非谓语动词作主语

可作主语的非谓语形式为:不定式和动名词。其表达形式为:

不定式:主动态 to do; 被动态 to be done; 动名词:主动态 doing; 被动态 being done

 例1To act like that is foolish.

 例2It is impossible for me to buy the car with cash. 要我用现金买那辆车是不可能的。

 例3Walking is a good form of exercise for both young and old.

 例4:—— What made you so late for work today ?

       —— Driving to the office was very slow this morning because of heavy traffic.因为交通拥挤,今早开车上班非常慢。

    一般说来,动名词和不定式作主语,可以互换,其意义没有多大差别,但须注意以下两点:

1.表示具体的,尤其是未发生的动作,倾向用不定式(如例2)。

  表示无时限的泛指动作(如例3)或描述当时的情况(如例4),倾向用动名词。

2.在下列句型用动名词作主语

 It is no good doing.(……没有用)

 There is no doing. (……不可能)

 It is no good arguing with him. 和他争论没有用。

 There is no knowing what may happen. = It is impossible to know what may happen.

练习 1.(改错)As is known, learn a foreign language well requires great efforts.

2.(改错)Though flying balloons are easy, balloonists must watch the weather carefully.

3.(选择)_______ to sunlight for too much will do harm to ones skin.

    A. Exposed to   B. Exposing  C. Having exposed  D. Being exposed

答案1learn learning    原形动词不能作主语。

     2.are is 单个动名词作主语,谓语用单数。

     3.答案D。句义:遭太阳暴晒对皮肤有害。本题考查动名词作主语。分析句子结构可知,待选项在句中作主语,又因为人与expose为被动关系,所以选D

第二节、非谓语动词作表语

可作表语的非谓语动词为:不定式,动名词。   

1.Your task this morning is to deliver the mail to Professor Smith. 你今天上午的任务是把这个邮件送给史密斯教授。(不定式解释主语内容)

2.My hobby is collecting stamps. (动名词解释主语内容)

练习1. The purpose of new technologies is to make life easier, ____it more difficult.99全国)A. not make B. not to make C. not making D. do not make

2.分析句子是否正确: What we do is prepare our students to face fierce competitions when they enter society.

答案1Bis后有两个表语,两者必须在结构上对称。第一个表语为不定式to make life easier,则第二个表语也应该为不定式,所以选B

    2、正确。当主语部分有实义动词do 时,作表语的不定式可以省略to; 若没有实义动词do,表语中to不能省略。

第三节、非谓语动词作宾语

 可作宾语的非谓语动词为:不定式和动名词。

 1.不定式作宾语

 例1.He demanded to know the truth.

 例2The car failed to stop at the red light. 那辆轿车看到红灯没有停。

英语中有相当数量的动词,只能以不定式作宾语。如: agree(同意),decide, refuse, pretend(假装),manage(设法),promise, seem, happen, hope, wish, offer to do(表示愿望)afford to do(买得起,承担得起),bother todo(特意),choose to do(愿意或决定) attempt / seek to do(试图) learn to do(学习或学会)

短语would like(loveto dowould prefer to do(更愿意),be about to do(即将),           介词 but / except to do

     例1I have no choice but to give up the plan.

       2)There was nothing we could do except wait.

注:but / except前有实义动词do, 其后to必须省去

请注意以下几点:

1疑问代词如whatwhich;疑问副词如when, whetherwhy除外)引导的不定式可作know, decide等的宾语,在意义上相当与一个未曾发生的宾语从句。

1We havent decided what steps to take next.

We havent decided what steps we should take next.

2.I really dont know whether to write to her or give her a phone call.

I really dont know whether I should write to her or give her a phone call.

 这种结构也可以作主语和表语

 例1What to do next remains to be discussed. 下一步该怎么办有待于讨论。

 例2Our difficulty is where to get enough money.

2为了避免重复,不定式可省去与前边重复的动词原形,而保留“to”。

 例:—— Would you like to go for a picnic with me ?

     —— Id love to, but I cant spare any time at present.to后省略了go for a picnic with you

3不定式的时态与语态:

     

     

 

时 间 概 念

 

时间概念

to do (一般时)

1)未发生2)和谓语动作同时

to be done

同 左

to be doing (进行时)

谓语动作发生时,正在进行

 

 

to have done (完成时)

发生在谓语动作之前

to have been done

同 左

 不定式的进行时和完成时常用在下列句型中: seem / appear(似乎)to

 happen(碰巧)to  pretend to  be said(据说)to  be reported(据报导)to

be thought / supposed / considered/ believed(据认为)to   be known(知道)to

   请注意:考查不定式的时态和语态,主要集中在以上句型中,是高考的重点和热点。

I happened to be standing next to him when he fell down.

The bank is reported in the local newspaper to have been robbed in broad daylight

yesterday. 据当地报纸指导,这家银行昨天在光天化日之下遭到抢劫。

He is known to have been arrested by the police. 人们都知道他曾被警察逮捕过。

 4was / were to have done ;would like to have done

    wished(hoped / wanted / intended / meantto have done

   表示当时想做,而实际不能做到

   I was to have picked you up at the airport, but I forgot about it.

   I intended to have helped you out but I had no money then. 我当时真想帮助

摆脱困境,可是我那时身无分文。

 

2.动名词作动词或介词的宾语

I can’t imagine marrying a girl of that sort. 我很难想象与那种女子结婚后的情形。

I narrowly missed being killed in the car accident. 在那次车祸中我死里逃生。

He admitted having stolen my bicycle.  他承认偷了我的自行车。

There is no point in arguing any further.再争议下去毫无意义。

1)下列动词必须带动名词结构作宾语:

   understand(理解),admit(承认),keepon)(继续),practise(练习),finish(完成),imagine(想象),miss(错过,避免),avoid(避免),escape(逃避),suggest(建议),dislike(讨厌),enjoy(喜欢),delay(推迟),excuse(原谅),mind(介意),appreciate(感激),oppose(反对)。

另外,有的词既可带动名词做宾语,亦可带不定式做宾语补足语,请区别清楚。如: allow doing(比较:allow sb. to do  advise doing(比较:advise sb. to do

2)下列短语必须带动名词结构作宾语:

    be worth(值得),pay attention to(注意),object to(反对),cant help(不自禁),devote oneself to(致力于),put off(推迟),be / get used to(习惯于),feel like(想要),look forward to(盼望),get down to(开始做,认真做某事),how / what about(……怎么样),There is no point (in) doing sth (做某事毫无意义)

3下列动词可以用不定式作宾语,也可以用动名词作宾语,但有明显的语义差别。

    remember doing  回忆起过去做过的事

    remember to do  记住要做的事

    forget doing  忘记了曾做过的事

    forget to do  忘记该做的事

    regret doing  对已发生的事表示后悔

    regret to do  对现在要发生的事表示抱歉

    mean doing  意味着,意思是

    mean to do  打算,想要

    try doing  试一试某种方法

    try to do  设法去做一件事

 比较1I dont mean to give up the plan. 我不打算放弃这个计划。

       A break down on our way would mean our walking for hours. 汽车半路抛锚意味着我们要步行几个小时。

比较2I have always deeply regretted sellinghaving soldthe farm.我一直为卖掉这个农场而后悔不已。

       We regret to tell you that you owe the bank &100. 我们很遗憾地告诉你,你欠银行100英镑。

第四节、非谓语动词作状语

    作状语的非谓语动词为:分词和不定式

1.现在分词和过去分词的区别

1)现在分词表示主动,译为“令人……”;过去分词表示被动,译为“感到…这”是两者最重要的区别

 The weather of this summer is disappointing.

  My parents will be disappointed with me if I fail the exam.

   描述事物或事情的性质一般用现在分词。

描述人的情感一般用过去分词。

   I don’t think it surprising for such a bad man to have been punished.it指“象这样的坏人受到惩罚”这件事)

   There was a surprised expression in her eyes.她的眼里流露出惊讶的神情。(人的表情是情感的具体表现,故应用过去分词来修饰expression

2)现在分词通常表示动作正在进行;过去分词通常表示动作已完成。

    Power stations employ falling water to produce electricity.

    The ground is covered with fallen leaves.

2.现在分词的时态与语态

     

     

 

时 间 概 念

 

时 间 概 念

doing

1)正在进行

2)与谓语动作同时

being done

动作正在进行

having done

分词动作发生在谓语动作之前

having been done

同左

3.分词表示时间、原因、条件、让步、伴随或补充说明等

 a分词做时间、原因、条件、让步状语的表达形式如下:

doing                                done

    having done    S(主语)+ V       having been done  S(主语)+ V

 


         (主动关系)                      (被动关系)

Not understanding its meaning, he asked the teacher to explain the word.(表原因:understanding与句子主语he之间是主动关系,同谓语动词asked同时发生)

Having made a decision, they immediately set out to work.(表时间:make a decision与句子主语之间是主动关系且发生于谓语动词set out之前)

Having been experimented many times, this new product will be put into mass production. 由于这一新产品已实验过多次,不久将投入批量生产。(表原因:experimented与主语product为被动关系,且先于谓语动词put之前发生)

词作上述状语时,它的位置可置于主句之前,也可置于主语之后。

例:They, having made a decision, set out to work.

选择:The research is so designed that once_____nothing can be done to change it.02全国)  A. begins      B. having begun    C. beginning        D. begun

本题考查状语从句的省略,难度较大。若时间、原因、条件和让步状语从句的主语与主句主语相同,且从句部分有be时,可省略从句主语及be。省略后的形式如下:

(1) when(while, until, once, as, if, though等)+ doing 从句谓语动词与主语为主动关系

(2) when(while, until, once, as, if, though等)+ done从句谓语动词与主语为被动关系

表示“某一事件的开始”,begin既可用主动态,也可以用被动态。状语从句表达形式:(1)Once it beings。这种形式,不具备省略条件。

    (2)Once it is begun。具备省略条件(有be)。省略后的形式为:Once begun

所以本题选D

b分词作伴随状语时, 其形式为:(1doing2done。究竟用现在分词还是过去分词,取决于该动作与句子主语是主动还是被动关系

We cant going out in this weather, said Bob, looking out of the window.04重庆)

 The boy sat in the dark room, frightened and trembling. 男孩一个人做在黑洞洞的房间里,吓得浑身发抖。

注意:作伴随状语的分词,与谓语动作同时。这是判断一个动词是否作伴随状语的主要尺度。请注意下列固定短语在作状语时的表达形式:

    Generally speaking 一般地说    Strictly speaking 从严格意义上说

    Judging from / by … 根据…判断    Given / Allowing for 考虑到

Given their inexperience, they have done a good job. 在缺少经验的情况下,他们的工作算是做得不错。

4.不定式用作表目的,结果,方式和形容词原因状语

    1)目的

    To win over the undecided voters, they are working twice as hard.

    为了把尚未拿定主意的选民争取过来,他们正在加倍努力工作。

    He got up early not to miss the first bus.(not to也可用so as not toin order not to这一强调形式)

    2)结果

    不定式作结果状语,常见结构有:

    too adj / adv to do ; too adj + a + n to do

    so adj / adv as to do ; such + n as to do

    The boy is too young to dress himself.

    He was too shrewd(精明的)a businessman to accept our offer.

    他是个非常精明的商人,不会接受我们的开价。

    Will you be so kind as to turn down the radio ? 请把收音机开小一点。

    He can’t have done such a terrible thing as to keep you waiting so long.

    他不可能做出这样糟糕的事,让你等这么长的时间。

   注意:表示一种事先没有预料的结果,用不定式。不定式前可用only来加强意想不到的语气。如:(04福建卷)The news reporters hurried to the airport ,only to be told the film stars had left. 然而,要表示在事情发展过程中必然会产生的结果,就要用分词来表达。分词前可加thus, 加强必然的语气。The new machine will work twice as fast, thus greatly reducing costs. 新机器的运转速度提高一倍,因而大大降低了成本。

   3)方式状语

结构: S(人,物)be + adj to do

特点(1)句子的主语在逻辑关系上为不定式动作的宾语

2)形容词为:easy, hard, difficult, comfortable, dangerous等。

    1.Some books are interesting to read, but boring to learn.

     有些书读起来很有趣,但学起来很讨厌。

    2.The telephone number is easy to remember.  他的电话号码很难记。

    3.That man is difficult to deal with. 那个人很难对付。

    4.The river is dangerous to swim in.

    注意:以上句子,尽管句子的主语和不定式动作为被动关系,但只能用主要形式;若不定式动词为不及物,应加上适当介词,如例4

   4)形容词原因状语。这类形容词通常是表示情感或评价行为表现的形容词。

    I am shocked to hear the news of his sudden death.

You were silly not to have locked your car. (04湖南)

第五节、非谓语动词作宾语补足语

作宾语补足语的非谓语动词是不定式和分词。

英语中有相当一批动词必须以不定式作宾语补充语。

My parents don’t allow me to stay out late.

She waited impatiently for him to make up his mind.

这些动词和短语为:

 wish, want, ask, require / request(要求);order, warn(警告) allow / permit, forbid(禁止), expect, remind(提醒),encourage, inspire(激励)call on(号召,要求),             depend on, long for sb. to do(渴望)

请特别记住下列动词的宾补形式,表达的意义及判断的依据。

 1 make(使)+ O + C +    do    宾语与宾补动作为主动关系。

                         done  宾语与宾补动作为被动关系。

   S + be made to do  主语与不定式动作为主动关系。

                    done 主语与分词动作为被动关系。

注:句型“O”代表宾语,为名词或代词;“C”代表宾补。

例:Those who wont work should be made to work. 那些不愿工作的人应强制他们去工作。

   He couldn’t make himself heard. 他无法让别人听到他说的话。

2.Keepleave+ O + C  doing 宾语与宾补动作为主动关系。(使处于某种状态)                done  宾语与宾补动作为被动关系。

     S + be + kept(left) doing 主语与分词动作为主动关系。

 done 主语与分词动作为被动关系。

    例:Now students are kept burying themselves in books all day.

    现在的学生被迫整天埋头读书。

    His work was left undone. 他丢下工作不去干。

3. find(发现)+ O + C  doing 宾语与宾补动作为主动关系。

                        done 宾语与宾补动作为被动关系。

    S + be +found   doing 主语与分词动作为主动关系。

                   done 主语与分词动作为被动关系。

   例:(03全国)A cook will be immediately fired if he is found smoking in the kitchen. 

 4                doing   宾语与宾补动作为主动关系

       with + O + C   done   宾语与宾补动作为被动关系

                     to do(动作未发生)

    例:1.He lay on the grassland with his jacket covering his stomach. 他躺在草地上,把上衣盖在肚子上。

2.With a lot of difficult problems to settle, the newly-elected president is having a hard time.  (02上海春季)由于很多棘手的问题要解决,那为新当选的总统处境艰难。

5.catch sb. doing ; be caught doing

   该句型表示(偶然或突然)撞见、发现。

   例:He looked around and caught a man putting his hand into the pocket of a passenger.  (04北京春季)他向四周看,突然发现一个人把手伸进一个旅客的口袋

 6.               do 宾语与宾补动作为主动关系。让某人做某事。

 have(使)+ O + C  doing 宾语与宾补动作为主动关系。让某一动作一直进行。

                   done 宾语与宾补动作为被动关系。

                       (表示:1)让某事由别人做。2)表达主语的遭遇。)

 例: 1.Whom would you like to have handle the complication problem?

2. Paul had his hand burned seriously while cooking dinner.

保罗在做饭时,手被严重烫伤。

 7. get+ O + C   to do宾语与宾补动作为主动关系。Get sb to do = have sb. do

               done宾语与宾补动作为被动关系。get sth done = have sth. done

   例:Youll never get her to agree.

       When are going to get your hair cut ?

 8.感官动词hear, listen to, see, look at, notice, watch, observe, feel等。

              do  宾语与宾补动作是主动关系。该动作全过程已结束,或经常hear + O + C      性发生

               doing 宾语与宾补动作是主动关系。该动作正在进行。

               done 宾语与宾补动作是被动关系。

               to do主语与不定式动作为主动关系。该动作全过程已结束或经

S + be +heard       常发生

               doing主语与分词动作为主动关系。该动作正在进行。

               done 主语与分词动作为被动关系。

例:He has never heard her sing so well before.

        I didn’t notice you carrying a pack when you came in.

        Never before had he felt himself so powerfully attracted to the scientific idea.

    改错:

    1)Now more talented young people are hoped to go to work in Western China.

                  A                  B           C           D

    2)I demand you all to take your work quite seriously.

                   A   B             C     D

    3)His appearance immediately made all the children becoming excited.

              A                       B           C       D

    4)This song has never been heard to be sung so well.

                A          B        C    D

    5)With much work remained to be done, we have to put off the trip until next week.

        A               B       C                D

   答案:1B  are hoped are wished    hope sb. to do典型病句

         2)B  to take →(shouldtake

             demand句型:1demand to do   2demand that (should)do

        3)C  becoming become 现在分词doing不能做make的宾补。

 4)C  to be sung sung

        5)B  remained remainingremain “剩下”是不及物动词,只有主动形式。

 注意:以上动词的宾补形式的考查是高考的重点和难点。

第六节、非谓语动词作定语

 1.不定式作定语

    在三种情况下需用不定式作定语:

1) 动作未发生,被修饰的名词在逻辑关系上是不定式动作的宾语。不定式用主动形式还是被动形式,由句子的主语与不定式的逻辑关系决定。

It seems to me that I have nothing to take home to my children.

在我看来今天我们没有东西可以带给孩子了

   She will tell us why she feels so strongly that each of us has a role to play in making the earth a better place to live.(03上海春季)她会告诉我们为什么她强烈地认为在使地球成为更好住处这一点上,我们每个人都有可以发挥的作用。

    若作定语的不定式动词为不及物动词,需加适合介词。如:

Now I feel very lonely because I can’t find anyone to talk with.

    2)被修饰的词为抽象名词,如need, way, reason, right等,不定式解释其内容。

    There is no need to quarrel with him.

    Please give your reason to refuse him.

    3)被修饰的词,其前有序数词first, second, last, only作定语。

    He is always the first(oneto get to school every day.

    She was the only one to survive in the air crash. 她是这次空难中唯一的幸存者。

2.分词作定语

以下情况常用分词作定语:

1)被修饰名词与作定语的动词为主动关系,该动作正在进行,或与谓语动作同时进行,或是经常性行为时,用现在分词。

When I got back home I saw a message pinned to the door readingsorry to miss you; will call later.”(99全国)

     现在分词作定语在意义上相当于一个时态为进行时或一般时的定语从句。

reading“sorry to miss you; will call later.= which read sorry to miss you; will call later.

2)若被修饰的名词与作定语的动词为被动关系,动词采用以下三种形式:

    a)动作已发生或为经常性行为,用done

b)若动作正在进行用being done

    c)动作未发生,用to be done

   例1:Many things      impossible in the past are common today.

       A.considering    B.to consider    C.considered    D.being considered

     2:People are talking about the play      in two days at the theatre.

       A.to perform    B.being performed   C.performed  D.to be performed

    例1答案为C。例2答案为D

典型例题

1) They knew her very well. They had seen her ___ up from childhood.

A. grow B. grew C. was growing D. to grow

答案:A. 因题意为,他们看着她长大,因此强调的是成长的过程,而非正在长的动作,因此用see sb do sth 的句型。

 

2) The missing boy was last seen ___ near the river.

A. playing B. to be playing C. play D. to play

答案:A. 本题强调其动作,正在河边玩,应此用see sb. doing sth句型。

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